शनिवार, 20 जनवरी 2018

क्या होता है सुबह बासी मुंह गर्म पानी पीने से, जानकर हैरानी होगी आपको

  • पानी हमारे स्वास्थ्य का एक खास हिस्सा है। स्वास्थ्य की दृष्टि से देखा जाए, तो रोजाना 8 से 10 गिलास पानी पीना अति आवश्यक है, क्योंकि पानी पीने से हमारे शरीर में हड्डियों में चिकनाहट रहती है और जिससे हमें चलने-फिरने में आसानी होती है। और थकावट कभी महसूस नहीं होती है। गर्मी के अंदर पानी अधिक पीते हैं, परंतु ठंड के अंदर कम पानी पीते हैं परंतु आवश्यकता तो उतनी ही होती है, जितनी गर्मी में पानी पीते हैं, इसलिए आज हम आपको बताते हैं कि ठंड के अंदर पानी को थोड़ा गुनगुना करके पीना चाहिए, जिससे पानी की भरपूर मात्रा की पूर्ति होती है और इससे सर्दी भी नहीं लगती है। रोज सुबह जल्दी उठकर थोड़ा गुनगुना गर्म पानी पीना चाहिए, जिससे हमारा पेट भी साफ होता है। 

  • पानी को अमृत कहा गया है वास्तव में पानी का कोई भी विकल्प नहीं है इस धरती पर और हमारे शरीर में 70 प्रतिशत पानी है। पानी शरीर के लिए अति अनिवार्य है। पानी हमारे शरीर को बहुत सी खतरनाक बीमारियों से बचाता है। पानी हमारी त्वचा को मुलायम और चमकदार बनता है। अगर हमें यह मालूम हो कि हमें किस समय कितना पानी पीना है, कैसे पानी पीना है तो हममे से किसी को भी सामान्य परिस्तिथि में डाक्टर के पास जाना ही ना पड़े। यदि आप लगातार 7 दिन तक सुबह खाली पेट, खाना खाने के बाद गर्म पानी पीते है तो आपको इसके फायदे महसूस होने लगेंगे जिसके कारण आप इसको हमेशा पियेंगे।


  • मेडिकल साइंस के अनुसार नित्य सुबह खाली पेट गर्म पानी पीने से कब्ज और गैस जैसी पेट की तमाम समस्याएँ दूर रहती हैं। लेकिन गर्म पानी पीना अति उत्तम है। गर्म पानी का सेवन करने से शरीर के तमाम विषैले तत्व बाहर निकल जाते हैं। रोजाना प्रात: एवं दिन में दो तीन बार गर्म पानी पिने से शरीर बिलकुल स्वस्थ रहता है, त्वचा चमकने लगती है।


  • युवावस्था में चेहरे पर मुंहासे ,पिंपल्स ,एक्ने , छोटे-छोटे दाने फुन्सियां निकलना एक आम बात है अधिकतर कील मुंहासे तैलीय त्वचा पर निकलते हैं अत: चेहरे पर क्रीम तेल कोई चिकनाई युक्त पदार्थ न लगाऐं ये हार्मोन की गड़बड़ी, त्वचा की सफाई न करने, पेट की खराबी से भी होते हैं।


  • कील मुंहासे ऐसी ही समस्या है जिसको लेकर लड़किया काफी परेशान रहती हैं क्योंकि यह समस्या आमतौर पर टीनेज और युवावस्था में अधिक होती है। हालाकि अधिक उम्र में भी इस तरह की समस्या परेशान कर सकती हैं। दरअसल, मुंहासे त्वचा में जलन और पिंपल्स होने की स्थिति को कहते हैं। इन्हें हाथ से फोड़ेंने से चहरे पर निशान पड़ जाते हैं। मुंहासे खाने पीने की गलत आदत से भी होते हैं। कारण जब पेट अपना काम सही रूप से नहीं करता जिसकी वजह से जो भी टॉक्सिक बाहर आ जाना चाहियें वो नहीं आ पाता तथा रक्त में जहरीले पदार्थ फैल जाते हैं और वह इस रूप में बाहर निकलते हैं।पिम्पल से बचने के लिए ऐसे भोजन जिनमें स्टार्च, प्रोटीन, वसा अधिक हो उनका सेवन करें । मांस, सफेद चीनी, कड़क चाय, अचार, कॉफी, रिफाइंड, सॉफ्ट ड्रिंक्स, आइसक्रीम, मैदे से बनी चीजों से बचना चाहिए। आप गर्म पानी पीने से त्वचा को कील-मुंहासों और दाग-धब्बों से कैसे दूर रख सकते है। आइये जानते है गर्म पानी पीने के फायदों के बारे में...


गर्म या हल्का गुनगुना पानी पीने के 15 चमत्कारी फायदे 
  1. सुबह जल्दी उठकर गर्म पानी पीने से हमारे शरीर की पाचन क्रिया तेज होती है और खाने का डीकंपोजीशन बढ़ता है।
  2. सुबह गुनगुना पानी पीने से हमारा वेट कम होता है, इससे हमको बहुत ज्यादा फायदा मिलता है। गुनगुना पानी हमारे शरीर का तापमान को तेजी से बढ़ाता है।
  3. उम्र से पहले बुढ़ापा आना यह एक बड़ी समस्या है। खास तौर पर यह महिलाओं में देखी जाती है। सुबह उठकर गुनगुना पानी पीने से प्रीमेच्योर एंजिंग समस्या से बचा जा सकता है।
  4. उठकर गुनगुना पानी पीने से शरीर के विषाक्त पदार्थ तथा टॉक्सिन को शरीर से बाहर निकालता है, इससे हमारे शरीर का सरकुलेशन ठीक होता है।
  5. पानी को उबालते हुए जब उसका चौथाई हिस्सा जल जाये अर्थात तीन हिस्सा पानी ही बचे तो ऐसा पानी पीना श्रेष्ठ है। ऐसा गर्म पानी का सेवन हमारे शरीर के वात, कफ और पित्त्त तीनो ही दोषों को समाप्त करता है।
  6. नित्य सुबह खाली पेट व रात्रि को खाने के बाद गर्म पानी पीने से पेट की सभी समस्याएँ खत्म होती है और गैस जैसी समस्याएं निकट भी नहीं आती हैं।
  7. गर्म पानी त्वचा के लिए रामबाण है। अगर आपको त्वचा सम्बन्धी परेशानियाँ रहती है , त्वचा में कील मुहाँसे भी निकलते है तो नित्य सुबह शाम एक गिलास गर्म पानी चाय की तरह चुस्कियाँ लेते हुए पीना शुरू कर दें। इससे आपकी त्वचा सम्बन्धी परेशानियाँ दूर हो जाएगी, कील मुहाँसे नहीं होंगे, त्वचा चमकने लगेगी।
  8. नित्य गर्म पानी का सेवन करने से शरीर में ब्लड सर्कुलेशन तेज होता है, ह्रदय भी स्वस्थ रहता है।
  9. अगर कोई व्यक्ति पथरी की समस्या से परेशान हैं तो वह सुबह शाम दोनों समय भोजन करने के पश्चात एक गिलास गर्म पानी का सेवन अवश्य ही करें।
  10. गले में टांसिल्स होने पर या गला खराब होने पर गर्म पानी में 1 चुटकी नमक डालकर गरारे करने से गले की परेशानी में शीघ्र आराम मिलता है।
  11. नियमित रूप से सुबह खाली पेट और रात में खाने के बाद गरम पानी के सेवन से कब्ज़ से राहत मिलती है।
  12. गर्म पानी वजन घटाने में भी बहुत मददगार होता है,रोज़ सुबह खाली पेट गर्म पानी में 1/2 नींबू व एक चम्मच शहद मिलाकर पीने से शरीर स्लिम होता है।
  13. नित्य एक गिलास गर्म पानी में एक नींबू का रस, काली मिर्च व काला नमक डालकर पीने से पेट का भारीपन दूर होता है भूख भी खुलकर लगती है।
  14. बुखार में गर्म पानी पीना अधिक लाभदायक होता है।
  15. जुकाम में गर्म पानी पीने से बहुत आराम मिलता है, इससे कफ और सर्दी शीघ्र दूर होते हैं।

सन्दर्भ -सामिग्री :http://www.allayurvedic.org/2018/01/amazing-health-benefits-of-drink-hot-water-empty-stomach-in-the-morning.html


शुक्रवार, 19 जनवरी 2018

लंबे समय तक जवां दिखना है, तो एंटीऑक्सीडेंट़्स से भरपूर मखाने खाएं

मखाना पोषक तत्वों से भरपूर एक जलीय उत्पाद है।इसमें औषधीय गुण भी होते है। साथ ही मखाने में कैल्शियम, अम्ल और विटामिन बी भी पाया जाता है। मखाने के बीज किडनी और हृदय के लिये लाभप्रद हैं।मखाने खाने के ये फायदे शायद ही आप जानते होंगे, क्योंकि बादाम-अखरोट व कुछ और ड्राई फ्रूट के फायदों के बारे में सुनने को मिल ही जाता है। लंबे समय तक जवां दिखना है, तो एंटीऑक्सीडेंट़्स से भरपूर मखाने खाएं l
ऐसे में मखाने के सेहतभरे फायदों पर शायद ही कभी आपने गौर किया होगा। यह शीघ्रपतन से बचाता है, वीर्य की गुणवत्ता और मात्रा को बढ़ाने में मदद करता है जिससे कामेच्छा बढ़ जाती है। इसके अलावा यह महिलाओं में बांझपन को भी दूर करने में मदद करता है। तनाव रहता हो या फिर नींद कम आती हो, तो रात को सोने से पहले मखाने का सेवन करें। सारी समस्याएं दूर हो जाएंगी।जानिए इसके इन जबरदस्त फायदों के बारे में…
डायबिटीज रोगियों के लिए फायदेमंद
डायबिटीज चयापचय विकार है, जो उच्च रक्त शर्करा के स्तर के साथ होता है। इससे इंसुलिन हार्मोंन का स्राव करने वाले अग्न्याशय के कार्य में बाधा उत्पन्न होती है। लेकिन मखाने मीठा और खट्टा बीज होता है। और इसके बीज में स्टार्च और प्रोटीन होने के कारण यह डायबिटीज के लिए बहुत अच्छा होता है।
बढ़ती उम्र को रोकता है: एंटी-एजिंग गुण
मखाने में बढ़ती उम्र के प्रभाव को रोकने की क्षमता होती है। मखाना एंटी-एजिंग के साथ एंटी-आक्सीडेट से भी भरपूर होता हैं जो उम्र को रोकने में सहायता करता है। जिस वजह से आप लंबे समय तक जवां बने रहते हो।
झुर्रियां और बालों का सफेद होना भी मखाने से कम हो जाते हैं।
किडनी को मजबूत बनाये
मखाने का सेवन किडनी और दिल की सेहत के लिए फायदेमंद है। फूल मखाने में मीठा बहुत कम होने के कारण यह स्प्लीन को डिटॉक्सीफाइ करने, किडनी को मजबूत बनाने और ब्लड का पोषण करने में मदद करता है। साथ ही मखानों का नियमित सेवन करने से शरीर की कमजोरी दूर होती है और हमारा शरीर सेहतमंद रहता है।
दिल की बीमारी में मखाना
मखाने में एस्ट्रीजन गुण होते हैं जो आपको दिल के रोगों से बचाता है। मखाना दिल की सेहत के लिए किसी औषधि से कम नहीं है।
दर्द से छुटकारा दिलाय
मखाना कैल्शियम से भरपूर होता है इसलिए जोड़ों के दर्द, विशेषकर अर्थराइटिस के मरीजों के लिए इसका सेवन काफी फायदेमंद होता है। साथ ही इसके सेवन से शरीर के किसी भी अंग में हो रहे दर्द जैसे से कमर दर्द और घुटने में हो रहे दर्द से आसानी से राहत मिलती है।
पाचन में सुधार करे
मखाना एक एंटी-ऑक्सीडेंट से भरपूर होने के कारण, सभी आयु वर्ग के लोगों द्वारा आसानी से पच जाता है। बच्चों से लेकर बूढे लोग भी इसे आसानी से पचा लेते हैं। इसका पाचन आसान है इसलिए इसे सुपाच्य कह सकते हैं। इसके अलावा फूल मखाने में एस्ट्रीजन गुण भी होते हैं जिससे यह दस्त से राहत देता है और भूख में सुधार करने के लिए मदद करता है। मखानों को देसी घी में भूनकर खाने से दस्त जैसे रोग से छुटकारा पाया जा सकता है।
अच्छी नींद और तनाव में मखाना
रात को दूध में मखाने डालकर खाने से आपको अच्छी नींद आती है। यह शरीर की कमजोरी को दूर करता है साथ ही तनाव को भी खत्म कर देता है।

Fight a cold by ... eating yogurt?

Story highlights

  • Yogurt is full of probiotics, which can help boost the immune system
  • It's also easy to swallow if you have a sore throat
(CNN)This winter, there's a good chance you might be looking for anything and everything to rid yourself of an annoying, lingering and sometimes debilitating cold.
You may want to add yogurt to your list of cold-fighting remedies.
"When it comes to yogurt specifically, I'd say there's not a lot of research that we can point to that indicates yogurt reduces symptoms of a cold," said Mickey Rubin, vice president of nutrition research for the National Dairy Council. That being said, "There are some things (in yogurt) we can point to that, in theory, would be beneficial."
    For example, yogurt is full of probiotics, which can help boost the immune system, according to Kristi L. King, a senior registered dietitian at Texas Children's Hospital and a national spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Studies that have looked at probiotics have found promising results in terms of reducing the duration and incidence of colds. However, specific benefits can only be attributed to the actual strains studied -- which do not necessarily exist in regular, non-supplemented yogurt, according to Rubin. For example, conventional yogurt contains Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus -- two cultures that are integral to the yogurt making process, and as such are known as "starter cultures." While these are beneficial bacteria, they are not necessarily the same probiotics that have been studied in clinical trials, according to Rubin.
    "We know yogurt is a nutritious food choice and we know probiotics are beneficial to health, so including them in an overall healthy eating plan makes sense, but recommending them specifically for the common cold would be premature," said Rubin.
    Yogurt also contains another immune booster: zinc. Research indicates that zinc can reduce the duration of cold symptoms, but the amounts of zinc needed for benefits -- at least 75 milligrams -- is much higher than the 2 milligrams present in an 8-ounce cup of yogurt.
    Carbohydrates in yogurt provide energy, which are important in helping you recover from a cold, according to King. And one recent study, funded by the National Dairy Council, found that when women consumed yogurt every day for nine weeks, they had reduced inflammatory markers in their blood -- findings that suggest a mechanism by which yogurt might be helpful in fighting off cold symptoms.
    "The common cold and its symptoms are an inflammatory response to the bug ... such that if yogurt or other foods reduced inflammation, it could in theory be beneficial -- but we need more research to know for sure," said Rubin.

    The bottom line

    Though the ability of yogurt to help fight a cold is, at best, theoretical right now, experts say there's no good reason not to choose yogurt when you have the sniffles or difficulty swallowing.
    "I wouldn't rely solely on yogurt to fight the cold, but in conjunction with a healthy diet, yogurt may be beneficial," said King.
    "Yogurt is smooth and goes down easy, so if you have a sore throat, or even a runny nose, it's comfortable to eat," added Rubin.
    So choose yogurt for its soothing texture and nutritional attributes, which include calcium and vitamin D, along with possible cold fighters like zinc and probiotics -- but not necessarily as a primary therapy for a cold.
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    For maximum benefits, King recommends eating plain yogurt with other antioxidant-rich foods, such as berries, which contribute natural sweetness, in addition to more cold-fighting nutrients. "Pairing yogurt with blueberries or strawberries will give you an extra dose of vitamin C and antioxidants to fight the cold off," she said.

    गुरुवार, 18 जनवरी 2018

    Coronary Calcium Score

    Calcium is a chemical element that is essential for living organisms.
    Most of the calcium within the human body is found in teeth and bone. A small amount, about one percent of total body calcium, is dissolved in the blood.
    Undissolved calcium is metallic and hard and is difficult to break or cut with a knife.
    When we age, calcium deposits can be found in many parts of our bodies. Calcification of the walls of the arteries is common in people aged 65 and older. Calcification of the breasts is often seen in women after the age of 50.
    So, to some degree calcification of arteries and internal organs can be regarded as a normal part of aging.
    Due to their metallic nature and density, calcium deposits are easily detected by X-ray images. In the early days of cardiac imaging, doctors relied on detecting calcium, as it often was the only feature that stood out on radiographs of the heart.
    If arterial calcification is abundant, the aorta and coronary arteries can be outlined on a plain radiographic image. Today these methods have been replaced by more sophisticated modern imaging techniques.

    Coronary Artery Disease

    The coronary arteries are important vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. To be able to function normally, heart muscle cells need a continuous supply of blood, delivering vital nutrients of which oxygen is most valuable.
    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that may cause narrowing of arteries, and rupture of arterial plaques, resulting in blood clotting (thrombosis) and sudden disruption of blood flow. Due to several different reasons, the coronary arteries are very prone to atherosclerosis
    If the supply of blood is disrupted, parts of the heart muscle may die and will be replaced by scar tissue. This can compromise the ability of the heart to pump blood to the organs of the body.
    The term acute heart attack (myocardial infarction) refers to a situation where there is a sudden blockage (occlusion) of blood flow in a coronary artery.
    In the early 1960’s several risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease were defined. Since then it has repeatedly been documented that smoking, lipid disorders, and high blood pressure are associated with increased risk. Other conditions that predispose to coronary artery disease are family history, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, mental stress and depression.
    Identifying individuals at risk is a major step to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Therefore, knowledge of risk factors and how to reduce their influence is of crucial importance. The declining death rate from coronary disease seen for the last 35 years can to a large extent be explained by reductions in major risk factors such as blood cholesterol, blood pressure, and smoking (1).
    Atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is still the most common cause of death in the Western world. Thus far, our ability to screen for this disease has been limited.
    Although the usefulness of screening is still debated, assessing the amount of calcium within the walls of the coronary arteries may provide valuable prognostic information.

    Coronary Artery Calcification

    Although calcification of the coronary arteries can be regarded as an aging phenomenon, extensive calcification appears to reflect more severe atherosclerosis, higher risk of heart attack, and worse prognosis.
    Coronary calcification can be seen in adolescents, although it usually starts later in life.
    The calcification is composed of calcium phosphate, similar to that in bone.
    For a long while, arterial calcification was thought to be the result of a degenerative process, 
    but recent evidence suggests  that a more active process is involved, possibly arising from injury or inflammation of the vessel wall.
    In June 2000, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) Consensus Panel wrote in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: “Coronary calcium is part of the development of atherosclerosis; it occurs exclusively in atherosclerotic arteries and is absent in the normal vessel wall.”

    Coronary Calcium Score

    In the 1980’s US cardiologists lead by Dr. Arthur Agatston defined a method to assess the amount of coronary artery calcium by using electron beam computed tomography, otherwise known as ultrafast CT scan.
    The density of calcium is determined by the so-called Hounsfield scale that measures density in Hounsfield units. The weighed score multiplied by the area of the coronary calcification provides the calcium score, commonly termed the Agatston score
    The amount of calcium in the walls of the coronary arteries, assessed by the Agatston score, appears to be a better predictor of risk than standard risk factors (2).
    A recent study found that the progression of coronary calcification, assessed by two scans in 2.5 years, was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during a follow-up of more than seven years (3).
    The presence and extent of coronary calcium are first and foremost markers of the extent of atherosclerosis within the coronary arteries. Nonetheless, it is important to understand that the coronary calcium score does not necessarily reflect the severity of narrowing (the degree of stenosis). Still, a patient with a high calcium score is more likely to have a significant narrowing of a coronary artery than a patient with a low calcium score.
    An individual without coronary artery calcification is very unlikely to have a severe narrowing of a coronary artery (4).
    Although cardiovascular events can occur in patients with very low calcium scores, the incidence is very low.

    Coronary Calcium Score Interpretation

    Based on a number of studies, the following definitions are used to relate the coronary artery calcium score to the extent of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease:
    • Coronary calcium score 0: No identifiable plaque. Risk of coronary artery disease very low (<5%)
    • Coronary calcium score 1-10: Mild identifiable plaque. Risk of coronary artery disease low (<10%)
    • Coronary calcium score 11-100: Definite, at least mild atherosclerotic plaque. Mild or minimal coronary narrowings likely.
    • Coronary calcium score 101-400: Definite, at least moderate atherosclerotic plaque. Mild coronary artery disease highly likely. Significant narrowings possible
    • Coronary calcium score > 400: Extensive atherosclerotic plaque. High likelihood of at least one significant coronary narrowing.

    When interpreting coronary artery calcium score, it is very important to consider age and gender. For example, 50% of white males aged 70 have a calcium score higher than 14,5 and 50%  of white females aged 70 have a calcium score above 13. There is a calculator available here that provides coronary calcium score distribution based on age, gender, and ethnicity.
    Coronary calcium score may contribute to risk assessment in people at risk for future cardiovascular events. A score of zero is associated with very low risk. Limiting primary prevention with statin drugs to those with a score above zero could spare 1 in 4 elderly from taking life-long medication that will benefit only a few (5).

    How Is Coronary Calcium Assessment Performed?

    Initially, coronary calcium assessment with CT was made possible with the development of the electron-beam CT scanner in the late 1980’s. The speed of this machine was much higher than that of existing scanners. The high speed made it possible to “freeze” heart motion to allow measurements of calcium in the coronary arteries.
    Coronary Calcium Score
    Lately, ultrafast spiral CT has been used to assess coronary calcium. This technique makes the scanning time very short. Often a scanning length of around 10 seconds is used.

    The patient usually needs no specific preparation. Fasting is not necessary. As high heart rate may reduce imaging quality, patients are often asked to refrain from smoking and drinking coffee before the scan. Sometimes beta-blockers are administered to slow heart rate.
    Many experts have expressed concerns about the radiation involved with the CT scan. It has been estimated that there may be an increase in radiation-induced cancer risk with repeated procedures (6).

    Vitamin K and Coronary Calcium

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone density, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. Supplemental calcium can increase bone mineral density and bone strength. However, recent data suggests that high consumption of calcium supplements may increase arterial stiffness (7).
    Vitamin K2 is associated with decreased arterial calcification and arterial stiffening and may lower the risk of vascular damage according to recent data (8). Vitamin K2 is not very widespread in the modern western diet and almost non-existent in junk food. Increased intake of vitamin K2 might help to reduce the health risks associated with coronary calcium.

    What to Do About Extensive Coronary Calcification?

    There is no specific treatment available that lowers coronary calcium.
    One randomized placebo-controlled trial (9) did not find any significant benefit with atorvastatin (cholesterol-lowering drug), vitamin C and vitamin E in patients with high coronary artery calcium score.
    Although blood levels of cholesterol were reduced, there was no effect on the progression of coronary calcium score. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular events were fewer in the drug treatment group compared with placebo, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a greater treatment effect in a subgroup with coronary calcium scores above 400.
    Treatment of individuals with high calcium scores should aim at reducing risk. This involves treating lipid disorders, high blood pressure, and diabetes if present. Refraining from smoking is essential. Regular, moderate exercise is advised. Due to the overwhelming evidence of benefit in individuals with atherosclerotic heart disease, treatment with aspirin and statins is often advised.
    If extensive calcification is present, further evaluation may be needed. Stress test associated with nuclear and echocardiographic imaging techniques is often performed. Coronary catheterization with angiography of the coronary arteries may be indicated to assess the severity and extent of coronary narrowing.

    Coronary Calcium Score
    Calcium is a chemical element that is essential for living organisms.

    Reference Material :https://www.docsopinion.com/2014/08/19/coronary-calcium-score/

    मंगलवार, 16 जनवरी 2018

    From the plague to polio ... 10 diseases you (wrongly) thought were gone

    Story highlights

    • Leprosy and TB are all still prevalent around the world
    • Plague still affects up to 3,000 people a year
    • To date, smallpox is the only disease to have ever been eradicated
    (CNN)This year, the United States has recorded 16 cases of plague, while recent figures have revealed that in the UK, cases of "19th-century" diseases such as scurvy and scarlet fever are on the rise.
    Changes to our living conditions and the development of medicines have affected the rise and fall of diseases, but they seldom disappear. To date, smallpox remains the only disease to have ever been eradicated.
    More about 'Unseen Enemy'
    Go to CNN.com/unseenenemy for more stories and resources about epidemics, pandemics and the CNN Films documentary, "Unseen Enemy."
    Here are some often-forgotten diseases that still exist -- despite our best efforts to control them.
      Plague
      Circa 1656, a plague doctor in protective clothing.
      In the 14th century, plague -- known as the Black Death -- killed an estimated 60% of the European population. Plague is spread by fleas living on rodents, such as rats and squirrels, but the development vaccines and antibiotics, and improved living conditions, have curtailed the spread of the disease
      Plague is rare in developed countries today, with roughly two to 10 cases reported in the United States annually, where there have been 16 cases so far this year.
      But the disease persists elsewhere. The WHO reports 1,000 to 3,000 global cases of plague every year. Africa, South America and Asia have the greatest number of cases -- particularly Madagascar, Peru and India.
      Rubella
      The virus, which is passed to babies in the womb from unvaccinated mothers, can cause multiple birth defects as well as fetal death when contracted by women during pregnancy.
      Rubella vaccinations first became available in 1970, helping many developed countries come close to eliminating the disease and in April 2015, the Americas became the first region to eliminate rubella, after a 15-year vaccination campaign.
      But the infection remains in countries with low immunization coverage, particularly in Africa and south-east Asia. An estimated 110,000 babies are born with Congenital Rubella Syndrome every year.
      Leprosy
      Circa 1200, a leper covered in sores approaches a man, making a gesture of supplication.
      Leprosy is a contagious disease transmitted by prolonged contact with infected people. It causes damage to nerve and skin cells resulting in disfiguring sores and permanent disabilities.
      The first breakthrough in leprosy treatment came in 1945, with the drug dapsone, but bacteria soon became resistant. This lead to the development of a successful multidrug therapy in the 1970s.
      The number of global leprosy cases has dropped significantly in the last 30 years, from 5.2 million in 1985 -- but there were still 216,000 cases in 2013. The disease is still a problem in parts of India, Brazil and Indonesia where more than 80% of cases occur.
      Gout
      Circa 1800, a  man rests his foot, with his slipper slit to accommodate a foot swollen from gout.
      Gout is a type of arthritis caused by the build up of uric acid or urates -- a natural by-product of digestion -- inside joints. This can lead to pain, swelling and redness. First identified by the Egyptians, Gout was once known as the "disease of kings" because of its links to excessive food and alcohol consumption.
      Unhealthy lifestyles and obesity have caused dramatic increases of gout in developed countries, with the condition now affecting an estimated 8.3 million North Americans -- nearly 4% of the adult population -- according to one study.
      The prevalence of gout varies significantly around the world -- at 4.75% Greece has the highest rate in Europe, according to a 2010 study.
      Whooping cough
      Whopping cough, or pertussis, is an airborne infection that swells the airways. It causes intense coughing, with particularly serious effects for babies.
      Before the 1940s there were more than 200,000 cases of whooping cough in the United States each year, until widespread vaccination reduced new infections by 80%. But outbreaks still occur. In 2010, California suffered its worst outbreak in 60 years, with close to 1,500 cases and 10 deaths.
      There were an estimated 16 million global cases in 2008 -- 95% in developing countries -- killing about 195,000 children.
      Diphtheria
      1858:  A satirical cartoon showing the River Thames and its offspring cholera, scrofula and diphtheria.
      This disease affects the nose and throat and is passed on by coughing or sneezing. It kills 5-10% of patients who catch it.
      It was once a major childhood killer. The United States recorded 206,000 cases in 1921, causing more than 15,000 deaths.
      Vaccination programs meant it declined rapidly, with only five cases of diphtheria reported in the United States in the last decade. But in the developing world it remains a problem.
      In 2011 nearly 5,000 cases of diphtheria were recorded globally, with many more likely unreported. It continues to be a problem in parts of Africa and Asia -- mostly due to poor vaccination coverage.
      Scarlet fever
      This disease is caused by bacteria found on the skin and throat, producing a distinctive pink-red rash. The bacteria is spread by sneezing and coughing, touching skin with infections such as impetigo, or sharing contaminated linen. There is still no vaccine.
      From 1840 to 1883, fatality rates of scarlet fever exceeded 30% in some parts of the U.S. and Europe. But from the 1950s, antibiotics and improved living conditions made the disease rare in developed countries.
      In 2014, more than 14,000 cases of Scarlet fever were reported in the United Kingdom -- the highest surge since the late 1960s -- and infections have continued in 2015. Globally, outbreaks of this rare disease continue to occur -- though rare -- with 1,500 cases and two fatalities reported in Hong Kong in 2011.
      TB
      A drawing of composer Frederic Chopin dying from tuberculosis, 1849.
      Known as the "White Plague" as it ravaged 18th-century Europe, tuberculosis (TB) is now the world's biggest infectious killer, ahead of HIV.
      More than 9,400 people were infected in the United States in 2014. Globally, TB killed an estimated 1.5 million people in 2013, whilst 9 million developed the disease. TB is treatable but drug-resistant forms cause further challenges in controlling the disease.
      The infection is spread through the air, aided by overcrowded housing and poor ventilation. Strong immune systems can normally fight off the disease but TB takes hold in patients with weakened defenses -- particularly people with HIV.
      Rickets
      &quot;A treatise of the Rickets,&quot; published 1651.
      Rickets is a disease that softens and bends children's bones. Commonly caused by a lack of vitamin D and calcium, it's often thought of as a 19th-century condition.
      Autopsy studies in parts of the Netherlands showed that in the late 19th century, 80-90% of children had rickets, but improved living conditions in developed countries made the disease so rare that many governments stopped tracking it.
      Although there's a lack of comprehensive data on the global rates of rickets, experts believe that less time spent outdoors (sunlight is converted into Vitamin D) combined with inadequate Vitamin D and calcium in some diets, is causing it to make a comeback in developed countries.
      Polio
       A boy suffering from polio being treated with a cuirass respirator, around 1955.
      Humans have been living with polio for thousands of years. The virus spreads through contact with infected feces or sneeze droplets, reaching the brain and spinal cord and causing paralysis in some cases. In the 1940s and 1950s, in the U.S. alone about 35,000 people annually became disabled because of polio.
      Effective vaccines were developed in the 1950s and 60s. When the Global Polio Eradication Initiative began in 1988, polio paralyzed more than 1,000 children worldwide every day. Since then, more than 2.5 billion children have been immunized, decreasing global polio cases by 99%.
      In 2015, just 51 cases of wild polio virus have been reported so far, all in Afghanistan and Pakistan.